The Broken Criminal Justice System

Kristeen Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe

In the United States criminal justice system is not represented by a single, all-encompassing institution. Rather, it is a network of criminal justice systems at the federal, state, and special jurisdictional levels like military courts and territorial courts. Criminal laws at these levels vary, although these are all allegedly based on the US Constitution.

The federal criminal justice system handles cases national in scope: treason, espionage, assassination of top-level government officials, among others. Meanwhile, state criminal justice systems handle crimes having taken place or, in certain situations, have evident involvement in the state. The same process goes for the criminal justice systems within special jurisdictions.

LAW ENFORCEMENT

The wheels of law enforcement are supposed to start grinding when a crime is detected. Detection takes place when law enforcement body receive a report from the victim or a witness, or catch the crime perpetrator. Thereafter, the law enforcers allegedly verify the information furnished and proceed with the investigation. But as we’ve seen time and time again, evidence of innocence is irrelevant.

Law enforcement duties allegedly include: arresting suspected offenders, gathering and preserving evidence, establishing the motive, and completing police/arrest reports by stating results of the investigation. Responsibilities should but rarely include: upholding the rights of offenders (although the majority of law enforcement officer’s do not), victims, and witnesses; and they are supposed to conduct police procedures within rules prescribed by law. However a 2006 FBI report admits White supremacists have a significant presence in law enforcement. The system was born in White Supremacy. It is soaked through and through with White Supremacy. The police who serve this system have no more legitimacy than a KKK lynch mob.

At the federal level, there is a law enforcement body designated to cover particular areas of criminal law. i.e. the Department of Homeland Security, which addresses the problem on human trafficking. Another would be the US Department of Justice (DOJ), which is made up of agencies like the FBI who have police powers over crimes of significant nationwide impact such as terrorist acts.

Meanwhile, state and other local-government police organizations vary in structure, as well as in names. However, the mission should be the same as the others’: to enforce laws, maintain peace and order in the communities they serve, and provide their constituency’s safety and security. However law enforcement doesn’t have to serve nor do they have to protect. Regardless of what’s painted on the side of police cars, for the past 30 plus years the Supreme Court has repeatedly ruled “police officers at all levels of the government have no duty to protect the citizens of this country. It is the job of police officers to investigate crimes and arrest criminals” so to even remotely believe all cops serve and protect is a lie! They only protect the government and don’t care about regular citizens.

Cops were invented during 2 separate periods in time….the 1st was to keep the people from overthrowing the crown while it’s soldiers were out pillaging and raping for more gold, silver and land for crown riches… 2nd was to keep the slaves from killing the slave masters.The origin of the modern US police organization was the “Slave Patrol” The first formal slave patrol was created in 1704 and had three primary functions: (1) to chase down, apprehend, and return to their owners, runaway slaves; (2) to provide a form of organized terror to deter slave revolts; and, (3) to maintain a form of discipline for slave-workers who were subject to summary justice, outside of the law, if they violated any plantation rules. Following the Civil War, these vigilante-style organizations evolved in modern Southern police departments primarily as a means of controlling freed slaves who were now laborers working in an agricultural caste system, and enforcing “Jim Crow” segregation laws, designed to deny freed slaves equal rights and access to the political system. Early US police departments shared two primary characteristics: notoriously corrupt and flagrantly brutal.

Today law enforcement hasn’t changed much. Police are government-sponsored street gangs whose only functions are 1) to funnel people into an increasingly for-profit justice system, 2) to extort funds beyond the scope of taxes and reasonable fines, and 3) to force civilian compliance with police and governmental measures regardless of constitutionality with threats or the use of violence and murder.

Progress produces fear in the oppressor in the form of the loss of power, and they retaliate. Every little gain is met with greater pushback. Police violence provides a twisted form of entertainment and Officers have FUN when they shoot, kill or at the very least beat people. Dishonorable cops feel entitled to dispense “street justice” largely because enough Americans have historically displayed a high collective tolerance for government-authorized police violence and killings.

Whether it’s through emotional immaturity, tactical incompetence, outright belligerence or the inability to separate personal problems from their job they are the ones creating situations and circumstances in which people are being deprived of their constitutional rights because they’re not held to the same standards as civilians, they operate under policy not law; this is the difference between legal and lawful. They’re even going so far as arresting people for criticizing law enforcement on the internet. Being awake, conscious and having an opinion is dangerous. How does it feel to be a criminal?

The Fraternal of Police is the single most adamant opposition to police accountability and reform. Instead of working with Black communities to address concerns they’re defending violent cops, blocking criminal justice reform, and promoting divisive Blue Lives Matter bills to mock the real pain…. blocking real solutions for police reform and undermining the justified demands of Black communities with their hateful rhetoric and policies like Blue Lives Matter laws.

Government has flooded social media with videos of “nice guy” cops playing basketball with kids, interacting kindly with community members, having a barbecue with Black people, and they have even hosted “hug a cop day” events in which people gather to hug police officers, as the police dance and act goofy. These are obviously staged PR stunts. Whose interests does this heartwarming police propaganda serve? Does it decrease the level of police violence? Does it increase accountability? Does it lessen the power of the police? Does it increase the strength of communities? No, it does not. These barbecues and hug a cop events are not community initiatives, they are police initiatives, which happen on police terms in the interest of protecting, perpetuating, and expanding police power. It is dis-empowering for those of us who have been victims of police violence to meet with our oppressors on their terms for heartwarming propaganda events because even the nicest, friendliest cop will brutalize, arrest, and jail me if he is ordered to, and he has the full power of the state upholding him in doing so.

A cop might have “good intentions”, but these good intentions don’t change the fact they’re a part of an institutionalized system. Policing isn’t a question of individualism. It is not as if a random individual gets a gun, a badge, a police car, and a blue uniform. The police are a highly organized institution with systemic power. The institution of modern day policing as stated above evolved from the slave patrol system. Enslaved Black bodies were the foundation of the American economy, as enslaved Africans were more valuable than America’s industrial capital combined. To suggest there are good cops is like saying there’s good slave patrols or good colonizers. If you are only “anti-police brutality” you’re simply saying you think slave patrols are good just as long as the those slave patrols doesn’t beat anybody.

“There is no crueler tyranny than that which is perpetrated under the shield of law and in the name of justice.” ~ Montesquieu, French political thinker and philosopher (1689-1755).

TO ALL THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE LEO RELATIVES: Your POLICE OFFICER is not gonna come home and admit he kicked the shit out of some kid….or tell you, “yeah, I didn’t tell on a brother officer”. I’m sure your he never comes home and says I gave tickets to 10 Black guys today and warnings to 20 White guys. Your Police Officer may actually be a cop with integrity, then again maybe he only works White neighborhoods. Or he’s never been in a position to do anything more than hand out parking citations or write speeding tickets. Maybe your police officer hasn’t been one to raid wrong houses shooting residents, killing bystanders with stray bullets, shoot first and ask questions later, inflict brutality and great bodily injury or death, speed though town hitting pedestrians and causing major accidents killing or maiming passengers because no matter how grave and allegedly regrettable, it’s deemed collateral damage by officials; thereby reducing and/or justifying the perception of culpability. Police commit murder and walk away with impunity, exempt from punishment, free from the consequences of their actions. So to those people who have LEO relatives I have one question “Shouldn’t good cops be the people most outraged by police brutality?”

ADJUDICATION:

The adjudication of a criminal case involves court processes. In plain terms, adjudication refers to the legal process by which a judgment is pronounced by the court to the parties in a case. As with the law enforcement component of the criminal justice system, the courts are organized at federal, state, and special-jurisdiction levels.

PRETRIAL SERVICES: The adjudication process starts when the law enforcement body has submitted the police/arrest report to the prosecutor. The prosecutor, in turn, determines whether or not the incident will prosper into a criminal case, in which the suspected offender will be charged with the crime. It is not uncommon for the prosecutor to drop or dismiss charges altogether, for reasons that include: lack of evidence and weak police investigation. It is the prosecutor who takes the side of the victim , or as is a majority of case, no victim other than the government and, accordingly, the state (society or community), which the crime has also affected. But it’s more uncommon for the prosecutor to completely ignore evidence, such as pre-trial justice; citizens routinely show up for mug-shots with black eyes, and bruises not present at the time of arrest.

ARRAIGNMENT: If the prosecutor decides to press charges against a suspected offender, the adjudication process advances to arraignment. During arraignment, the suspect is read the charge/s filed against him or her. With the aid of a Defendants who is stuck with attorneys who lack the time, resources, or ability to zealously represent their clients as guaranteed by the Constitution, legal counsel especially if it’s state appointed legal counsel spends less than 10 minutes reading the file and speaking with the suspect who is now a defendant and enters a plea of either guilty or not guilty.

BAIL: Bail was originally created to keep high risk offenders from missing their court date or being a potential danger to society. Now it is being unjustly used as an indicator of wealth not risk. 500,000 un-convicted Americans are in limbo and waiting in jail for days, months and sometimes years to see a judge. The majority isn’t even high risk, violent offenders -they just can’t afford to pay their bail. Pretrial defendants make up 60% of our prison population. The US spends $14 billion a year to keep those 500,000 people in jail because the median bail bond amount nationally is almost a full year’s income for the typical person unable to post a bail bond.

TRIAL: The arraignment progresses into trial to determine the guilt of the suspect (if the not-guilty plea was not entered). In the event of a guilty verdict, the offender is convicted and the court will determine the sentence.

A trial is characterized by an argument which has two sides: the prosecution and the defense, but since the public defender is an employee of the court, it’s generally a one sided argument. An overzealous prosecution, inadequate defense resources and a pattern of racial bias and exclusion. On the one hand, the prosecution represents the interests of the victim and in effect, the society (or state) the offender is suspected to have violated. On the other, the defense asserts the innocence of the offender and often makes less than half-hearted attempts to get the offender acquitted, but is open to plea deals to push thru as many “suspects” as possible to fulfill their quota.

A trial often results in an appeal, in which the disadvantaged side (prosecution or defense) will try to shift the advantage. In this instance, the case is elevated in a higher court, which either upholds or overturns the earlier decision. However getting an appeal takes months and months and if the defendant, now an inmate is indigent and cannot afford a private attorney, they’re pretty much shit out of luck.

SENTENCING: A court conviction corresponds to a sentence, which is the penalty imposed on the offender who has been found guilty as a result of the preceding trial. The sentence is meted out by the judge, who follows prescribed guidelines, standards, and limitations in punishing convicts.

If convicted the suspect/defendant may get a stiff fine, but more than likely if the suspect/defendant is a person of color i.e. Black/Indigenous/Latinx a severe jail sentence is imposed.

66% of Black defendants were prosecuted for felonies, while 69 percent of Whites were prosecuted for felonies; Among Blacks prosecuted in urban courts, 75 percent were convicted of a felony, while 78 percent of Whites were convicted of a felony and 3) The average state prison sentence received by Blacks convicted of a felony was five and one half-years, one month longer than their White counterparts. Yet among Black defendants convicted of a felony, 51 percent received a prison sentence, as opposed to 38 percent of Whites.

One could, however, draw a vastly different conclusion regarding the role of race in the criminal justice system because lacks/Indigenous/Latinx tend to get substantially longer prison terms than Whites convicted of the same crimes, even when the Black person is a first time offender and the White person a second- or third-time offender. For murder Blacks serve 91.7 months versus 79.8 months for Whites; for rape, 55 months for Blacks versus 43.9 for Whites; for kidnapping, 41 months for Blacks to 37 for Whites; and for robbery, 37.4 for Blacks to 33.3 for Whites.45

DEATH PENALTY: Generally, United States laws permit the death penalty for convicts who have committed heinous crimes, although the practice of capital punishment is on a case-by-case basis.

In principle, the Federal Death Penalty Act of 1988 sentences to death all offenders convicted of homicide. But in practice, capital punishment is more an exception than the rule. For example, most of the convicted terrorists on death row have yet to be meted out their sentences.

“An execution is not simply death. It is just as different from the privation of life as a concentration camp is from prison. It adds to death a rule, a public premeditation known to the future victim, an organization which is itself a source of moral sufferings more terrible than death. Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal’s deed, however calculated can be compared. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date at which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not encountered in private life.” ~ Albert Camus, French writer and philosopher.

DEPT. OF CORRECTIONS

The third component of the criminal justice system is corrections. While it implies reform and rehabilitation, corrections encompass all sentenced offenders, including those who are on death row.

Federal and state criminal justice systems hold “corrections” as the replacement for “penology” that many find harsh and unforgiving. In any case, the corrections component manages incarcerated convicts and those who are conditionally released, as well as those who are merely slapped with punishments that do not require imprisonment but who need supervision anyway.

The corrections network includes publicly run and privately operated institutions, along with the personnel and other stakeholders, and its administration is supposed to adhere to lawful standards. The process should involve reform and rehabilitation programs to prepare eligible convicts for reentry and reintegration into society as free individuals, however the majority do not.

Between 1972 and 2007, the nation’s imprisonment rate more than quintupled—increasing from 93 to 491 per 100,000 people. The number of prisoner-years per murder multiplied nine times. Prisons that had housed fewer than 200,000 inmates in Richard Nixon’s first years in the White House held more than 1.5 million as Barack Obama’s administration began. Local jails contain another 800,000. The current system of criminal law and enforcement has grown obese.

The US treats people as less than human and puts them in literal cages, intentionally inflicting harm and suffering on them and then expect this will somehow improve them. It’s nonsensical, immoral, and counterproductive.

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Now That I’ve Got Your Attention

Kristeen Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe

So this morning I find a message from someone on my private Facebook Messages… I get those pretty frequently from unknown somebody’s, mostly trolls looking to hook up with some of my followers to start the all too frequent troll baiting exercise they’re so fond of; however this woman, Dharmika Judy Henshel approached me differently, her message grabbed my attention along with an invitation to her website and would I consider linking our sites to share knowledge. Clicking the link provided I realized she was similarly like-minded in her search for truth in media.

What I discovered while perusing the 7 menu and assorted sub-menu tabs were interviews, videos, photos, and articles supporting Indigenous 1st Nations at the various Standing Rock Camps; a comprehensive account of events and research data separately categorized into pages consisting of various subject matter, including but not limited to 1st Nation Treaty Rights vs. Big Oil, the history of predatory illegal land grabbing i.e. Eminent Domain; legal and medical litigation, environmental, and cultural information, policing without due process and freedom to peacefully assemble.

You’ll find a compilation of information not contained on Let Our Voices Echo so I’d like to invite everyone to utilize both websites when hunting for that lost article, photo or video, editorial content, educational research material or your everyday PhD thesis!

#NODAPL ARCHIVE – STANDING ROCK WATER PROTECTORS
nodaplarchive.com

Mni Wiconi

Kristeen Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe
HIGHLIGHTED LINKS UNDERLINED IN BLUE ARE EMBEDDED LINKS TO NEWS SOURCES. CLICKING OPENS THE FULL ARTICLE IN A NEW TAB.
 
 
reporter
  INDEX
 
 
 
NEWS ARTICLES ~ STANDING ROCK
http://wp.me/P6lD99-17T
VIDEO ARCHIVE ~ STANDING ROCK
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1fI
LEGAL PERSPECTIVE
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1WT
POLICE WEAPONRY AND THE ATROCITIES AT STANDING ROCK
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1ac
STORIES FROM THE FRONTLINE JAN. 1, 2017 – FEB. 28, 2017
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1GC
STORIES FROM THE FRONTLINE JAN 9, 2017 – OCT. 25, 2016
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1dE
STANDING ROCK HISTORY
http://standingrock.org/history/
WITHOUT WATER WE CAN NOT EXIST
http://wp.me/P6lD99-N4
STANDING ROCK CAMPS #WATER IS LIFE
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1hR
TRUSTED NEWS SOURCES ~ STANDING ROCK
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1i6
HOW YOU CAN HELP STANDING ROCK #NODAPL
http://wp.me/P6lD99-VG

Broken Treaties Stolen Land

Kristeen Hernandez aka Lady2Soothe
HIGHLIGHTED LINKS UNDERLINED IN BLUE ARE EMBEDDED LINKS TO NEWS SOURCES. CLICKING OPENS THE FULL ARTICLE IN A NEW TAB.

An informed opinion demands familiarity with both sides of an issue. Let’s start from the beginning; this was land belonging to Indigenous from time immemorial; Native lands and Reservations are not synonymous. In 1851 land was guaranteed to the Sioux Nation. Keep in mind not all that land is part of the Reservation, but IT IS Native Land. Guess where the pipeline is? It’s in the lands that were guaranteed, but not part of the Reservation. So DAPL’s claim the pipeline doesn’t run through the reservation is true, but it has nothing to do with the whole truth, in other words DAPL is lying by omission. When you actually take the time to read the 1851 Treaty, you’ll realize the treaty has been ignored and violated over and over again. Pro-DAPL wants law and order right? The treaty IS the law. The treaty was never rescinded; it’s Native land, PERIOD. So when they’re talking about the property rights of the pipeline, DAPL doesn’t have any, can’t argue that, they’ve got to respect the law, the property rights, the treaty. Energy Transfer Partners NEVER got permission from the tribe, they have NO PROPERTY RIGHTS; it’s that simple.

First, the 1851 treaty the tribe is fighting to keep. The pipeline crosses that land….. Two, the 90 feet underwater crossing is under the water supply for the tribe no matter where the intake is. The new intake is downstream. Given a leak under water, and the oil floats to the surface entrapping itself through the column of water. It could be days or weeks before anyone even notices, which means a great deal of pollution such as we witnessed in the Gulf of Mexico takes place before anything can be done. Especially since the oil in the pipe will first saturate the soil and later the water column. Lots of oil in that pipe with no way really to recover it until it all surfaces….. Third, and is sorely missing from the multitude of words, is the wildlife endangered. The Natives do consider the wildlife, and it would be nice if the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service did too. But then the FWS have pretty much sold out to extractive industries and stood by silently as fish and wildlife in the US continues to be decimated…… So anyone disputing these facts including DAPL needs to go back to the drawing board, because no one in their right mind trusts the government to protect the waters.

Signed on April 29, 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites.

Public Law 85-915 85-916 and 85-923 September 2, 1958 | [H. R. 12662] 72 Stat. 1762
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol6/html_files/v6p0861.html
passed by the U.S. Congress, compensating the Standing Rock Sioux for tribal land flooded ten years prior to form Lake Oahe. Rights to all minerals below the lake were reserved for the tribe. Because of this, no corporate or government entity has a right to dig beneath the lake without permission of the tribe and is breaking the law in attempting it.

Public Law 85-915 An Act to provide for the acquisition of lands by the United States required for the reservoir created by the construction of Oahe Dam on the Missouri River and for rehabilitation of the Indians of the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation in South Dakota and North Dakota, and for other purposes.

Public Law 85-916 An Act to provide for additional payments to the Indians of the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation, South Dakota, whose lands have been acquired for the Fort Randall Dam and Reservoir project, and for other purposes. Public Law 85-923 An Act to provide for additional payments to the Indians of the Lower Brule Sioux Reservation, South Dakota, whose lands have been acquired for the Fort Randall Dam and Reservoir project, and for other purposes.

The drilling pad is on unceded territory (land never surrendered, relinquished or handed over in any way) of the Sioux Nation. The federal government acknowledged this as well as admitting the Sioux Nation never took the $108 million offered in 1944, which the fed’s put in a trust fund which has accrued interest and is now worth $1.3 billion. The Sioux are still saying “No thanks, we don’t want your money we want our land.” There is also additional land the government ceased from 1948 to 1953 for the construction of the Oahe Dam. In 1999 and 2000 congressional studies recommended the land be given back to the Sioux. The Dept. of Energy can return the land at any time and empty the trust fund for a sizable investment profit.

Now don’t try and argue the tribe ignored the meetings because all of the so called missed meetings were not missed. It was just reported as so. Nations would show up (all that is required) and be ignored and tromped over in favor of the pipeline. Multiple closed meetings. The 2007 Resolution by Standing Rock, which prohibited any pipeline in the treaty area, and not only that, scheduled meetings were moved without mention or notice, how we were told we couldn’t speak when bringing attention to various agenda’s yet not allowed to.

2014 Recorded meeting specifically stated by Tribal Chairman Dave Archambault II that while the pipeline crosses less than a mile north of the reservation boundary, the tribe recognizes its treaty boundaries and passed a resolution in 2012 opposing pipelines within the those boundaries. http://bismarcktribune.com/news/state-and-regional/audio-tribe-objected-to-pipeline-nearly-years-before-lawsuit/article_51f94b8b-1284-5da9-92ec- 7638347fe066.html Even though The Bismarck Tribune has scrubbed the article, they are as complicit as Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier and Governor Jack Dalrmple. However “Meet the Youth; at the Heart of the Standing Rock Protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline – Internet USA News Today”

had the recording, you would have found it at approximately the 13 minute mark, however, this video too has now been scrubbed. Dave Archambault was very specific in the tribes stance against the pipeline.

The 1st, 2nd, 4th and 14th Amendments Rights have been infringed upon, ignored and violated and Bivens Actions, which the Supreme Court holds as a violation of one’s Fourth Amendment rights by federal officers are giving rise to a federal cause of action for damages for unlawful searches and seizures. Additionally Congress enacted 42 U.S.C. § 1983 in order to protect the rights guaranteed to all Americans by the 14th Amendment. Under Section 1983, a victim can file a lawsuit in federal court for police brutality.

Are those Amendments and rules of now void? As a US citizen, do YOU still have those constitutional rights? I’m sure you’d agree you’re concerned with your own rights being infringed upon, ignored and violated, right? So why are you willing to throw Indigenous rights away? How long do you think it will take before another group will come along and throw YOUR rights away? By ignoring the rights of other’s you’re giving silent consent to having your own rights violated. You do realize you’re actually advocating to abolish all the constitutional right afforded every US Citizen, including yourself, but you’re okay with that, right? You see you’re playing your part in the time honored tradition of getting rid of the people you find less than. Next year when you hear people complain about what happened at Standing Rock, don’t claim you “didn’t have anything to do with it, you’re tired of being blamed for your ancestors transgressions”, because your complicity and silence, ignoring the whole historical evidence-based argument is as much your fault as it is of your forefathers.

1852
3 weeks of negotiating homelands, areas and how to conduct relations with the Federal Government. In 1852 the end the treaty was ratified by the US Senate by recognizing 12 tribes of the owners of a little over 1.1 million sq. miles of the west enveloping twelve western states and corral the future cities of Denver and Fort Collins, Kansas City, Billings, Cheyenne and Sheridan, Cody and Bismarck, Salt Lake City, Omaha and Lincoln, Sioux Falls and Des Moines, within one vast territory that was owned, as it had been since time immemorial, by Indian nations.

The treaty defines Sioux territory as across the Missouri River from the west bank to the east bank including the low water mark down the east bank. This treaty has been in effect for over 164 years.

On September 17, twenty-one chiefs representing the Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Crow, Mandan, Hidatsa, Arikara and Assiniboine signed the Horse Creek Treaty. Both sides agreed to the government’s right to “form roads and establish military posts” in Indian territory; terms for maintaining peace and for assigning reparations for losses on either side; indemnity for any prior destruction caused by the emigrants; The United States would give each tribe $50,000 worth of supplies and gifts annually to each tribe for damages; in return for safe passage and the right to establish military forts along the trails. In addition to these payments the often nomadic tribes agreed to make peace among themselves and honor traditional hunting grounds for winter and summer camps. On Sept. 17 all parties signed the treaty. Of course. Congress unilaterally reduced the terms of the treaty the following year from 50 years to 10 years.

The Horse Creek Treaty was considered a legally binding international treaty that was not to be broken. However, the U.S. government soon failed to fulfill its promises. It did not protect the hunting grounds and it increasingly demanded more land from the Indians. The young braves were impatient and angry seeing their lands shrink and their people sinking in hopelessness. In 1854, tension erupted into warfare at a large Brulé village near Fort Laramie, where 4,000 natives awaited their overdue government annuities – the annual payments due them under the 1851 Treaty.

By 1864 the treaty was no longer being honored by either party, and the breakdown of the treaty contributed to the “Indian Wars of the 1870s-1890s”.

A new treaty at Fort Laramie was written in 1868. This treaty was to bring peace between the Whites and the Sioux who agreed to settle within the Black Hills reservation in the Dakota Territory. The United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. In 1874, however, General George A. Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills accompanied by miners who were seeking gold.

The United States would continue its battle against the Sioux in the Black Hills until the government confiscated the land in 1877. To this day, ownership of the Black Hills remains the subject of a legal dispute between the U.S. government and the Sioux.

TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE (1868)
ARTICLES OF A TREATY MADE AND CONCLUDED BY AND BETWEEN

http://tinyurl.com/h6lnjaf

EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS
1 quart of oil contaminates 250,000 gallons of water. Methane de-aerates the water.
In 2 Years, Energy Transfer Partners, the company Behind DAPL Reported 69 Accidents, Polluting Rivers in 4 States. The report lists 42 oil spills, 11 natural gas spills, nine gasoline spills, three propane spills, two “other” spills and two “unknown” spills. The 69 accidents led to eight injuries and five evacuations. There were 220 ‘Significant’ Pipeline Spills in 2016, more than 176,000 gallons of oil spilled in western North Dakota in Dec. 2016 alone.

There are 2.5 million miles of pipe, 55% of the U.S. network i.e. 135,000 miles are more than 45 years old. Based on data from the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), the number of significant pipeline incidents grew 26.8 % from 2006 to 2015. A significant incident is defined as one that results in serious injury or fatality, costs more than $50,000, releases more than five barrels of volatile fluids such as gasoline or 50 barrels of other liquids, or results in a fire or explosion. In 2015, there were 326 such incidents—almost one per day. Of 466 incidents studied only 22 percent, or 105, were detected by advanced detection systems, ALL others were found in different ways, with the public finding 99 of the leaks.

Since 2010, over 3,330 incidents of crude oil and liquefied natural gas leaks or ruptures have occurred on U.S. pipelines. These incidents have killed 80 people, injured 389 more, and cost $2.8 billion in damages…. Dec. 13, 2016 Colorado a 6-inch fiberglass gathering line (byproduct of oil and gas extraction) pipeline leaked into local water in Saul’s Creek which is an intermittent stream flowing into Beaver Creek which meets the Los Pinos River shutting down 17 wells and an earthen dam, AND on Wed. Jan. 25, 2017 a 12-inch underground pipeline initially spotted in a farm field in north-central Worth County, Iowa leaked nearly 140,000 gallons of diesel. Feb. 7, 2017 an 8-inch pipeline owned by Hilcorp Alaska, LLC began leaking natural gas which is dissolving in the water. Feb. 16, 2016 in North-Central Iowa a 12” pipeline bursts and spilled over 130,000 gallons of diesel, Feb. 22, 2017 Hanlontown, Iowa, the Magellan Pipeline leaked 138,600 gallons of diesel fuel and Feb. 23, 2017 a six-inch line operated by Belle Fourche Pipeline leaked into the river northwest of Belfield in Billings County. By the time it was shut down, oil had traveled about 2.5 miles down the river. Or what about the Feb. 7, 2017 Hilcorp 8-inch undersea pipeline leaking at a rate between 210,000 and 310,000 cubic feet of gas a day, so don’t attempt to tell me how safe pipelines are. Creating a second Flint Michigan and killing people with environmental waste is not the way to make America great.

Map Displays Five Years of Oil Pipeline Spills http://tinyurl.com/j598jjs

America’s Dangerous Pipelines https://youtu.be/3rxqUXqPzog

When researching the routing of DAPL a PER CAP IMPACT INDICATOR and PROJECT THRESHOLDS STATISTICAL OBSERVANCE of how many people would be affected by a leak north of Bismarck the PER CAP IMPACT INDICATOR stated Bismarck had a relatively large amount of people who would be affected, however the number of people affected by a leak in Lake Oahe was listed as zero. What this means they felt is there was not one single person out of 18 million people who would be directly affected WHEN the pipeline breaks who were even considered.

The questions not asked were: How would the Dakota Access Pipeline be different from other pipelines? How a will leak impact the soil? How long is it expected to take before it starts leaking? Being under Lake Oahe how long before someone even notices the leak?

Every time the earth is drilled, she cries a little tear…

 
 
News Articles and Updates ~ Oceti Sakowin
http://wp.me/P6lD99-17T
You Tube Video Archive ~ Standing Rock
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1fI
How You Can Help Standing Rock? #NODAPL
http://wp.me/P6lD99-VG
Standing Rock history
http://standingrock.org/history/
Without Water We Can Not Exist
http://wp.me/P6lD99-N4
Stories from the Frontlines ~ Standing Rock
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1dE
Atrocities at Standing Rock and Police Weaponry
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1ac
Trusted News Sources ~ Standing Rock
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1i6
Standing Rock Camps #Water Is Life
http://wp.me/P6lD99-1hR