Reservations, Internment Relocation Centers and Ghettos are America’s Concentration Camps… Welcome to the United States; Land of the (not so) Free
Wounded Knee So. Dakota Dec. 29, 1890
Dec. 29, 2015 marks the 125th Anniversary of the murder of 297 Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee Creek on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South. Dakota on December 29, 1890. These 297 PEOPLE, in their winter camp were murdered by Federal Agents and members of the 7th Cavalry who had come to confiscate their firearms” for “their own safety and protection”. The slaughter began AFTER the majority of Sioux had peacefully surrendered their firearms.
Wounded Knee Dec. 29, 1890
South Dakota Jan. 10, 1891
Decomposing bodies of Yaqui Indians
“SEVERELY MALNOURISHED DAKOTA INDIAN WOMAN IN A TIPI”
Following the systemic slaughter of the Buffalo nations 1891
~ “It is, in the end, cheaper to feed the whole flock for a year than to fight them for a week.” -U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1850.
~ “They take our land, they take our hunting and then they force us to work for food that make us sick.”
On the Great Plains, tribes came to be seen grudgingly as “Wards of the Nation” and were guaranteed at least on paper, food rations by treaties signed with the United States government in exchange for their vast traditional lands.
Rations cards were issued by the Indian agent to the heads of each household for up to nine dependents once weekly. Rations were often late; the rotting meats caused sickness and death. Rations came in the form of beef, flour and pork with the occasional coffee, sugar, soap and tobacco. Indian agents came to use rations as a form of coercement, to threaten against participation in cultural gatherings, forcing Native families to send their children to government boarding schools often hundreds of miles away with the warning -“do this or I’ll take away your ration ticket!”
Over time, the promise of rations came to be seen as a burden by society of the day a view promoted by politicians and in the national media. Rations were then decreased and ultimately eliminated. Over time the land and climate could not sustain and support the small-scale agriculture the government Indian agents were forcing Natives into under the admonition prevalent at the time, “Till or starve!”.
Brutal winters killed the native’s cattle and the government issued passes for settler’s cattle herds to graze on supposedly protected reservations lands, these herds trampled and destroyed what crops the tribes planted and they did manage to grow.
Drought stalked the Plains then, as today. Traditional roots, berries, and plants on the reservation became over-foraged, and bison, who would have kept everyone fed, were by this time nearly extinct. Tribes no longer had an effective system of sharing food as was custom prior to reservation life that had always protected the poor, elderly, ill, and the disabled from starvation. Leading to despair, furthering the breakdown of ancient life ways in, culture and community.
~ “The government is ready to assist in their support, to grant them reservations, to give them food and make them presents; but it must and will, with sharp hand, enforce their respect to travel, their respect to lives and property, and their respect to trade throughout all this region. And if this cannot be secured, short of their utter extermination, why extermination it must be.”
– Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the US House of Representatives, May 1865.
Gordon, or Whipped Peter, was a slave on a Louisiana plantation who escaped from slavery in 1863. He would go on to serve as a soldier in the United States Colored Troops. Harper’s Weekly published photos of Gordon’s scarred back, the result of his time in slavery. The photos helped make slavery more real for those living in the North and accelerated the Union cause in the war.
African-Americans made up less than 1 percent of the North’s population but were 10 percent of the Union Army. Black men weren’t allowed to join the army until 1863. About 180,000 Black men, more than 85 percent of eligible African-Americans in the Northern states, fought. While White soldiers earned $13 a month, Black soldiers earned only $10 — and then were charged a $3 clothing fee that lowered their monthly pay to $7. The highest paid Black soldier made less than the lowest paid White one. After protesting by refusing to accept their wages and gaining support from abolitionist Congressmen, Black soldiers finally received equal pay in 1864 — paid retroactively to their enlistment date.
Burying the Dead – Civil War
Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, USA, August 3, 1920.
Strange Fruit Strange Fruit
Laura Nelson Okemah OK May 25, 1911
Jesse Washington 17 yr. old May 15, 1916 Waco TX
Washington was accused of raping and murdering Lucy Fryer, the wife of his white employer in rural Robinson TX . Washington a mildly mentally challenged was tried for murder in Waco, in a courtroom filled with furious locals. The trial lasted about one hour and after four minutes of deliberation, the jury’s foreman announced a guilty verdict and a sentence of death. After his sentence was pronounced, he was dragged out of the court by observers, they put a chain on his neck and lynched him in front of Waco’s city hall. Over 16,000 spectators, including city officials and police, gathered to watch the attack. There was a celebratory atmosphere at the event, and many children attended during their lunch hour. Members of the mob castrated Washington, cut off his fingers so he couldn’t climb the chain, and hung him over a bonfire. He was repeatedly lowered and raised over the fire for about two hours. After the fire was extinguished, his charred torso was dragged through the town and parts of his body were sold as souvenirs. A professional photographer took pictures as the event unfolded, providing rare imagery of a lynching in progress. The pictures were printed and sold as postcards in Waco.
(photo above) July 19, 1935 Ruben Stacy 32 hangs from a tree in Ft. Lauderdale FL. Stacy was lynched by a mob of angry masked White men who seized him from the custody of sheriff’s deputies for allegedly attacking a white woman.
Cousins Recall Emmett Louis Till’s Murder
A poster rallying White voters to oppose enfranchisement allowing African American’s to vote
Lancaster Ohio 1938
September 10, 1963 a white student had been photographed wearing a sign on his shirt that read “Keep West End White.” On either side of the word “Keep” appeared two Confederate flags
15-year-old Elizabeth Eckford attempts to attend classes at Little Rock Central High School as an angry mob followed her, yelling, “Drag her over this tree! Let’s take care of that nigger!'” and “Lynch her! Lynch her!” “No nigger bitch is going to get in our school!”
“Birmingham, ALA., Sept. 11, 1963 —CAR WINDOW SMASHED—One of two Negro girl students who desegregated West End High School in Birmingham sits in car and is partially framed by broken auto window. A rock was hurled through the window as the Negro girls were leaving the school area after class this afternoon. (APWirephoto) 1963”
Manzanar Relocation Camp California Holsworthy Interment Camp New South Wales California 1917
82 Japanese Americans arriving at Manzanar Internment Camp Owens Valley CA March 24, 1942
The Great Depression 1930’s
President Hoover held the belief Americans should be self-reliant and not depend on government so he took a very conservative approach to solving the economic difficulties created by the banking industry. Andrew Mellon (1855–1937), secretary of the treasury under Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover, two of America’s richest men. He saw to it that tax cuts for the wealthy passed through Congress. For relief for the needy he depended on private charities and asked Americans to donate.
Despite the general appearance of prosperity in the 1920s, Americans did not share wealth equally. Many people had few material goods and no way to change their position; a few people have a great deal of wealth and were determined to keep that wealth for themselves. The top 1 percent of the population saw a 75 percent increase. However America’s 27.5 million families, 78 percent, 21.5 million were not able to save anything after necessities were purchased. These 21.5 million earned under $3,000 a year. Six million of them earned less than $1,000 yearly.
Child labor and abuse
During the Great Depression people lined up to get food at soup kitchens. Skilled and non-skilled workers stood in lines for hours to get some food.
New York City in November 1933, about 5,000 people, many of whom started gathering by 5 a.m., line up outside the New York Labor Bureau.
The Great Depression of the 1930’s was catastrophic for all workers. But as usual, Blacks suffered worse, pushed out of unskilled jobs previously scorned by Whites before the depression. Blacks faced unemployment of 50 percent or more, compared with about 30 percent for Whites. Black wages were at least 30 percent below those of White workers, who themselves were barely at subsistence level.
There was no relief from the liberal Roosevelt administration, whose National Recovery Act (NRA) of 1933 was soon referred to by Blacks as the Negro Removal Act. Although its stated goal was nondiscriminatory hiring and an equal minimum wage for Whites and Blacks, NRA public works projects rarely employed Blacks and maintained racist wage differentials when they did.
Between the years of 1945 and 1947, researchers at Vanderbilt University conducted a twisted experiment in which hundreds of pregnant women were exposed to radiation intentionally for the purpose of testing how it affected both the child and mother.
The study was funded by the U.S. Public Health Service and overseen by the Tennessee State Department of Health. All of these women were poor and had no knowledge of the experiment, and were never informed that they were a part of a study.
At the Tennessee clinic, 829 pregnant women served radioactive iron as part of their regular treatment.These young women came to the clinic thinking that they were getting vitamins to drink, that this would help their babies. And in fact, what was being studied was how fast the radio iodine crossed into the placenta. . At least seven of the babies later died from cancers and leukemia, and the women themselves experienced rashes, bruises, anemia, loss of hair and tooth, and cancer.
And very strange cancers at young ages. [Interview Eileen Welsome] Plutonium Files: How the U.S. Secretly Fed Radioactivity to Thousands of Americans
The story broke into the news after decades when three women—Emma Craft, Helen Hutchison and her daughter, Barbara—filed a lawsuit against the university for exposing them to radiation.
“Mrs. Craft, 72, said at a Senate hearing on Jan. 25 the experiments caused the cancer death of her 11-year-old daughter, Carolyn, in 1959.” The other women reported symptoms and ailments that coincide with radiation poisoning.
The Final Solution: First it was Identification, then Isolation, Deportation and finally Extermination
On January 20, 1942, fifteen leading officials of the Nazi state met at a villa in Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, to discuss the ‘Final solution of the Jewish Question’. The ‘Final solution’ was a code name for the murder of all the Jews of Europe.
The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide by Robert Jay Lifton
An Auschwitz survivor asked Lifton about the Nazi doctors, “Were they monsters when they did what they did? Or were they human beings?” Lifton turned to him and replied “They were and are men, which are my justification for studying them; and their behavior. Auschwitz itself was a product of specifically human ingenuity and cruelty. Neither brilliant nor stupid, neither inherently evil nor particularly ethically sensitive, they were by no means demonic figures, sadistic, fanatic, lusting to kill. They were people, if they were monsters they would be uninteresting; but the fact they were people makes it imperative we understand them.
Hitler, studied the plans of Bosque Redondo
Hitler was very interested in the way the Indian population had rapidly declined due to epidemics and starvation in the United States. The Nazis, under Hitler, studied the plans of Bosque Redondo when he designed concentration camps for Jews.
The 1864 deportation and attempted ethnic cleansing of “Diné” Navajo by the U.S. government which 8,000 Navajos were forced to walk more than 300 miles at gunpoint from their ancestral homelands in northeastern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico to an internment camp in Bosque Redondo, a desolate tract on the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico. Many died along the way. From 1863 to 1868, the U.S. Military persecuted and imprisoned 9,500 Navajo and 500 Mescalero Apache (the N’de). Living under armed guards, in holes in the ground, with extremely scarce rations, it is no wonder that more than 3,500 Navajo and Mescalero Apache men, women, and children died while in the concentration camp.
“If we understand the past maybe now we can understand the future”
“It’s hard to look at these things, and that’s why we must look at these things.They unleash in us the feeling of shame: shame not because we were the perpetrators, but shame because we are the same species that perpetrated these crimes. If you feel uncomfortable, that’s good. For if we ever feel comfortable, if we ever feel easy, then something deeply and profoundly moral within our own humanity has been deeply shattered and lost.”… Michael Berenbaum Ph.D.. Director Sigi Ziering Holocast Institute
Explaining White Privilege to a Broke White Person https://letourvoicesecho.wordpress.com/2015/12/02/explaining-white-privilege-to-a-broke-white-person/
Equal Justice Initiative ~ A HISTORY OF RACIAL INJUSTICE
Photos Courtesy of Christian Racism
Human Rights Advocate, Researcher/Chronological Archivist and member in good standing with the Constitution First Amendment Press Association (CFAPA.org)