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Homophone – all words and phrases that sound the same but have different meanings

Homograph – words that sound and are spelled the same but have different meanings

Homonym – words that have the same spelling but a different meaning

Heterograph – words that sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings

Multinym – words that sound the same but have more than two different meanings and spellings


ABANDONMENT – The giving up or withdrawal of support from something or someone,. The act of leaving or deserting a person or property

ADAPTATION – What it says: adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation

AD HOMINEM – Comments directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining

ALTERNATIVE MEDIA –  raise information and viewpoints ignored by dominant/mainstream media, represent marginalized or oppressed groups, or create new communities of interest or identity among ordinary people

AFFLUENZA – an inability to understand the consequences of one’s actions because of financial privilege

AFFIDAVIT – A statement written and confirmed by oath or affirmation. A written report that is signed by a person who swears that the information included in the document is accurate to the best of their knowledge

ALLEGORY – a story, poem, or picture which can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one

ANTI-CAPITALISM –  a substitute for the propaganda model’s fifth filter, anti-communism, to keep it relevant to current times and analysis of this thesis’ case study. The newly termed filter suggests the media will reinforce the capitalist ideology and anything or any person deemed anti-capitalist is portrayed as an enemy

ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM –  is hostility towards and mistrust of intellect, intellectuals, and intellectual pursuits, usually expressed as the derision of education, philosophy, literature, art, and science, as impractical and contemptible

ANTI—RACIST – (As applied to white people) is a person who makes a conscious choice to act to challenge some aspect of the white supremacy system: including her/his own white privilege, as well as some form of oppression against people of color. (As applied to people of color), some use the term anti-racist. Others use synonyms such as freedom fighter, activist, warrior, liberation fighter, political prisoner, prisoner of war, sister, brother, etc. In practice, it is difficult for an activist of color not to be an anti-racist activist, since the struggle against racial oppression intersects with every issue affecting people of color

ANTITHETIC – directly opposed – Being in diametrical opposition

ANTITHETIC PARALLELISM – is a form of parallelism where the meaning of two or more excerpts of text are observed, although directly linked by providing the same meaning from differing perspectives

AGRONOMIST – is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation

ARGUMENTUM AD PERSONAM – attacking a person’s character or motivation rather than a position or argument

ASSIMILATION – The process by which a person takes material into their mind from the environment, which may mean changing the evidence of their senses to make it fit

ATTITUDINAL RACISM – or individual discrimination is discrimination fueled by certain attitudes about the minority group which causes the individual to target that group, seeing them as lazy, unproductive, harmful, or otherwise unwanted

AVARICE – extreme greed for wealth or material gain

BALKANIZATION – divide (a region or body) into smaller mutually hostile states or groups

BANE ACT – which alleges a cop violated someone’s constitutional rights by threats or intimidation

BANK FRAUD – The act of using illegal means to obtain money or other assets held by a financial institution. The act of obtaining money from people by posing as a financial institution

BIGOT – a person who is intolerant toward those holding different opinions

BINARY – something having two parts

BINARY CONSTRUCTS – is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning.

BINARY OPPOSITION – is the system by which, in language and thought, two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one another

BIOPOLITICS – is a complicated concept that has been used and developed in social theory to examine the strategies and mechanisms through which human life processes are managed under regimes of authority over knowledge, power, and the processes of subjectivation

BIVENS ACTIONS – The term “bivens actions” is generated from Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents 456 F.2d 1339 (1972), in which the Supreme Court held that a violation of one’s Fourth Amendment rights by federal officers can give rise to afederal cause of action for damages for unlawful searches and seizures

BLACK CODES – laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans’ freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. Some common elements of Black Codes were: Race was defined by blood; the presence of any amount of black blood made one Black. Employment was required of all freedmen; violators faced vagrancy charges. Freedmen could not assemble without the presence of a White person

BLUE CODE OF SILENCE – The blue wall of silence, also blue code and blue shield, are terms denoting the unwritten rule existing among police officers not to report on a colleague’s errors, misconducts, or crimes, including police brutality and orchestrate lying and various means used to maintain control

BOLSHIE – a person or attitude) deliberately combative or uncooperative

BREACH OF CONTRACT – An unjustifiable failure to perform terms of a contract. A violation of contract through failure to perform, or through interference with the performance of the contractual obligations

BURGLARY – unlawful entry into a structure, such as a home or business, with the intent to commit a crime inside

CADENA PERPETUA – is identical to Cadena Temporal with the exception it’s a life sentence as opposed to a temporary status

CADENA TEMPORAL – imprisonment for at least 12 years and one day, in chains, at hard and painful labor; the loss of many basic civil rights; and subjection to lifetime surveillance

CARCERAL – of, relating to, or suggesting a jail or prison

CEASE AND DESIST – To stop, discontinue, or bring to an end. To stop doing something

CHILD EXPLOITATION – Using a minor child for profit, power, status, sexual gratification, or some other purpose

CHINESE WALL – a business term describing an information barrier within an organization that was erected to prevent exchanges or communication that could lead to conflict of interest and isolate people who make investments from those who are privy to confidential information that could influence the investment decisions

CIRCULAR REASONING – a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with. The components of a circular argument are often logically valid because if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true

CIVIL FORFEITURE/CIVIL SEIZURE – is a controversial legal process in which law enforcement officers take assets from persons suspected of involvement with crime or illegal activity without necessarily charging the owners with wrongdoing

CIVIC IGNORANCE – lack of knowledge or information relating to, or belonging to a city, a citizen, or citizenship; municipal

CIVIL LAW – The body of laws that govern ordinary private matters, separate from laws presiding over criminal, military, or political matters. The body of law that governs private or civil rights, providing redress for wrongs by compensating the person or entity that has been wronged rather than punishing the wrongdoer

CIVIC NATIONALISM – is a kind of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalismcompatible with values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights

CLASS INCLUSION – The understanding, more advanced than simple classification, that some classes or sets of objects are also sub-sets of a larger class

CLASSIFICATION – The ability to group objects together on the basis of common features

CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDER – are characterized by dramatic, overly emotional or unpredictable thinking or behavior. They include antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder

COERCIVE PERSUASION – Mind control – brainwashing, reeducation, brainsweeping indoctrination process which results in “an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations

COINTELPRO – (a portmanteau derived from COunter INTELligence PROgram) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting and disrupting domestic political organizations

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING – Negotiation of issues or conditions of employment by an organized body of employees and the employer.

COLORISM – Discrimination based on skin color, and is a form of prejudice or discrimination in which human beings are treated differently based on the social meanings attached to skin color. Colorism, a term coined by Alice Walker in 1982, is not a synonym of racism

COMMON LAW – Laws that are based on court or tribunal decisions, which govern future decisions on similar cases

COMPLEX QUESTION – phrasing a question or statement in such as way as to imply another unproven statement is true without evidence or discussion

CONNOTATION suggestive meanings – the meaning being conveyed by an image, object

CONSERVATION – The realization that objects or sets of objects stay the same even when they are changed about or made to look different

CONSPIRACY THEORY – an explanatory hypothesis that accuses two or more persons, a group, or an organization of having caused or covered up, through secret planning and deliberate action, an event or situation which is typically taken to be illegal or harmfu.

CONTRADICTORY PREMISE – also known as a LOGICAL PARADOX – Establishing a premise in such a way that it contradicts another, earlier premise

COGNITION (cognitive learning skills) – ability to process information, understand, reason, remember, and relate

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE –  inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.

COUNTERINSURGENCY – military or political action taken against the activities of guerrillas or revolutionaries

CRIMINAL LAW – The area of local, state, and federal law that defines criminal acts and offenses, governs the arrest, detention, charging, and prosecution of accused offenders, and sets specific punishments

CRITICAL THINKING – the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment

CULTURAL CLEANSING – is the eradication and destruction of cultural artifacts, such as books, artworks, and structures, and the suppression of cultural activities that do not conform to the destroyer’s notion of what is appropriate

CULTURAL NATIONALISM – is a form of nationalism in which the nation is defined by a shared culture. It is an intermediate position between ethnic nationalism on one hand and liberal nationalism on the other

CULTURAL REPRESENTATION – refers to popular stereotypes, images, frames and narratives that are socialized and reinforced by media, language and other forms of mass communication and “common sense.” Cultural representations can be positive or negative, but from the perspective of the dismantling structural racism analysis, too often cultural representations depict people of color in ways that are dehumanizing, perpetuate inaccurate stereotypes, and have the overall effect of allowing unfair treatment within the society as a whole to seem fair, or ‘natural.’

CULTURAL/SOCIAL IDENTITY – feeling of belonging to a group having its own distinct culture

CULTURE – ways of living the cultivation and transmission of attitudes, values, goals, and behaviors that predispose people to established ways of thought and action among individuals within specific groups or systems.

DEBUNK – expose while ridiculing the falseness, sham, or exaggerated claims

DECENTRATION – The ability to move away from one system of classification to another one as appropriate

DECILE – is a method of splitting up a set of ranked data into 10 equally large subsections. This type of data ranking is performed as part of many academic and statistical studies in the finance field. The data may be ranked from largest to smallest values, or vice versa. When an analyst or statistician ranks data and then splits them into deciles, it is in an attempt to discover the largest and smallest values by a given metric

DECODING – transforming information from difficult to understand to easily understood – suggestive meanings and literal meanings

DECOLONIZATION – is the intelligent, calculated and active resistance to the forces of colonialism which perpetrated the subjugation and/or exploitation of our minds, bodies and lands, and it is engaged for the ultimate purpose of overturning the colonial structure and realizing Indigenous liberation

DELEGITIMIZE – destroy the legitimacy

DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY or DISCURSIVE DEMOCRACY ~ is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making. It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule

DENOTATION – literal meanings – simple, basic, description or informational

DEODAND – is a thing forfeited or given to God, specifically, in law, an object or instrument which becomes forfeit because it has caused a person’s death. The English common law of deodands traces back to the 11th century and was applied, on and off, until Parliament finally abolished it in 1846

DEPORTATION – The lawful expulsion of a foreigner from a country

DERISION – contemptuous ridicule or mockery

DESPOTISM – the exercise of absolute power, especially in a cruel and oppressive way. a country or political system where the ruler holds absolute power

DIASPORA – is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale. Diaspora can also refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland. Example: Jews living outside Israel

DIATRIBE – a forceful and bitter verbal attack against someone or something

DICHOTOMY – a division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as being opposed or entirely different

DISCOURSE – speak or write authoritatively about a topic

DISCRIMINATION – making a distinction in favor of or against people of a racial group

DISCURSIVE ANALYSIS –  general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event

DISCURSIVE DEMOCRACY or DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY  ~ is a form of democracy in which deliberation is central to decision-making. It adopts elements of both consensus decision-making and majority rule.

DISENFRANCHISE – deprived of power of a legal right or privilege – marginalized

DISENFRANCHISEMENT – deprive a person of a right or privilege of citizenship, as of the right to vote

DISINHIBIT – a temporary loss of inhibition caused by an outside stimulus ie drugs, alcohol etc. In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania

DISPUTANT – a person who is involved in a dispute and especially in a legal dispute

DISSIMULATION – concealment of one’s thoughts, feelings, or character; pretense

DIVISIVE – causing a lot of disagreement between people and causing them to separate into different groups

DOLUS EVENTUALIS – Intent in the form of dolus eventualis or legal intention, which is present when the perpetrator objectively foresees the possibility of his act causing death and persists regardless of the consequences, suffices to find someone guilty of murder


DOUBLE ENTENDRE – Double meaning, think Mae West “It’s not the men in my life that count, it’s the life in my men” “A hard man is good to find” “Flattery will get you everywhere” – word or phrase open to two interpretations, one of which is usually risqué or indecent

DOUBLE JEOPARDY – The subjection of an individual to a second trial or punishment for the same offense or crime for which he has already been tried or punished

DOUBLETHINK – having 2 opposing beliefs at the same time – to deliberately believe in lies knowing they’re false the acceptance of or mental capacity to accept contrary opinions or beliefs at the same time, especially as a result of political indoctrination

DUE PROCESS CLAUSE – Clause included in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution ensuring that no person is deprived of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law

DUPOLY – the most basic form of oligopoly, a market dominated by a small number of companies

DYSTOPIAN – denoting an imagined place or state in which everything is unpleasant or bad, typically a totalitarian or environmentally degraded one.

DYSTOPIC FUTURE – An imagined universe (usually the future of our own world) in which a worst-case scenario is explored; the opposite of utopia

EDITORIAL BALANCE –  the effort to make the expression of views in a public forum match the degree to which those views or issues are seen as important to the readers at large

EDITORIAL BIAS –  appearing to favour one position or range of positions over others

EFFICACY – the ability to produce a desired or intended result.

EGOCENTRISM – The belief that you are the centre of the universe and everything revolves around you: the corresponding inability to see the world as someone else does and adapt to it. Not moral “selfishness”, just an early stage of psychological development

EMINENT DOMAIN – the right of a government or its agent to expropriate private property for public use, with payment of compensation. Evidence of innocence is irrelevant

ENCODING – receive both denotatively and connotatively

EQUIVOCATION – Using a word in a different way than the author used it in the original premise, or changing definitions halfway through a discussion

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE – is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies

ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM – is a type of discrimination where people of low-income or minority communities are forced to live in close proximity of environmentally hazardous or degraded environments, such as toxic waste, pollution and urban decay

ESSENTIALISM – a doctrine which certain traditional concepts, and skills are essential to society and should be taught to everyone

ETHNIC – Pertaining to, or characteristic of, a people, especially a group that shares a common and distinctive culture, language, religion, or the like

ETHNIC CLEANSING – The removal of an unwanted ethnic group from a society, whether by forced emigration, or by genocide. The expulsion, imprisonment, or killing of an ethnic minority by a dominant majority, in order to achieve ethnic sameness

ETHNICITY – socially defined category, people who identify based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience -shared cultural practices, perspectives, and distinctions that set apart one group of people from another

ETHNIC NATIONALISM – aka ethno-nationalism, is a form ofnationalism wherein the “nation” is defined in terms of ethnicity. The central theme of ethnic nationalists is that “nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry”

ETHNOCENTRISM – leads us to make false assumptions about cultural differences. We are ethnocentric when we use our cultural norms to make generalizations about other peoples’ cultures and customs. Such generalizations — often made without a conscious awareness that we’ve used our culture as a universal yardstick — can be way off base and cause us to misjudge other peoples. Ethnocentrism can lead to cultural misinterpretation and it often distorts communication between human beings… By evaluating “them” by what we are best at, we miss the many other aspects of life that they often handle more competently than we do. Studies indicate that education has an effect on Ethnocentrism; higher educated people are less prejudice than those with a lesser degree of knowledge.Believing that all others experience the world in the same ways as we do, is the belief that all others should believe that our way is the superior way. Ethnocentrism can refer to the ways in which we can think our culture and ways of doing things are superior to others’ ways of doing and being

EXECUTED CONTRACT – a legal document that has been signed off by the people necessary for it to become effective. To complete, and give effect or validity to, a legal document, decree, law, or judicial sentence. Fulfilling legal requirements of a contract or other instrument by signing or sealing.

EVIDENTIARY – documents which play a role in a trial proving the outcome – affording evidence i.e. photos etc.

EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES – are exceptions to the general requirement of a warrant under the Fourth Amendment searches and seizures.  Exigent circumstances occur when a law enforcement officer has a probable cause and no sufficient time to secure a warrant

EXOTIFICATION – Treating or representing someone as different from mainstream behavior

EXOTIFY – the process of making things more exotic

EX PARTE – From, or for the benefit of, one side or party. Of, or relating to, an action in a legal proceeding brought about by one party without the participation or presence of the opposition. An ex parte decision is one decided by a judge without requiring all of the parties to the controversy to be present. From, or for the benefit of, one side or party. Of, or relating to, an action in a legal proceeding brought about by one party without the participation or presence of the opposition.

EXPROPRIATE – property taken away from its owner

FAIT ACCOMPLI – a thing that has already happened or been decided before those affected hear about it, leaving them with no option but to accept)

FALLACIES OF OMISSION – the logician leaves out necessary material in an argument or misdirects others from missing information

FALLACY of REIFICATION or Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness – treating a word or an idea as equivalent to the actual thing represented by that word or idea, or the fallacy of treating an abstraction or process as equivalent to a concrete object or thing

FALSE DICHOTOMY – This fallacy occurs when a writer builds an argument upon the assumption that there are only two choices or possible outcomes when actually there are several

FASCISM – a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by a dictator controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree with the government

FAULTY ANALOGY – Relying only on comparisons to prove a point rather than arguing deductively and inductively

FELONY – A crime, such as murder, burglary, or arson, of a more serious character, than a misdemeanor

FEMINISM – socio-political and economic resistance against patriarchy and its manifestations

FORCE MAJEURE – chance occurrence, unavoidable accident

FORGERY – A crime that involves making to altering a writing with the attempt to defraud another person or entity. The production of fake art or

FRAMING – surrounding the issue changing the reader’s perception without having to alter actual facts

FRAUD – Wrongful deception with the intent to gain personally or financially. Intentional deception in order to persuade another person to part with something of value. A person who pretends to be something or someone he is not

GAG ORDER – typically a legal order by a court or government, restricting information or comment from being made public, or in some cases, passed onto any unauthorized third party. The phrase may sometimes be used of a private order by an employer or other institution

GENDER – socially constructed, societal assignment of behaviors & identities known as masculine or feminine assigned to sexes

GENTRIFICATION – buying and renovation of houses and stores indeteriorated urban neighborhoods by upper or middle- income families or individuals, thus improving property values but most often displacing low-income families and small businesses

GERRYMANDERING – achieve a result by manipulating the boundaries of an electoral constituency

GLASS-STEAGALL ACT – also known as the Banking Act of 1933 (48 Stat. 162), was passed by Congress in 1933 and prohibits commercial banks from engaging in the investment business. It was enacted as an emergency response to the failure of nearly 5,000 banks during the Great Depression

HAPLOGROUP – is a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patrilineal or matrilineal line

HEGEMONIC – dominance

HERD IMMUNITY – general immunity to a pathogen in a population based on the acquired immunity to it by a high proportion of members over time

HERITAGE and HISTORY – they’re separate social functions, and the problems arise when the distinction between them is not recognized.

HETERONORMITIVITY – the norms that society expects from its citizens, implying that heterosexual is normal and any other sexuality is abnormal.

HETEROSEXISM – discrimination or prejudice against homosexuals on the assumption that heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation.

HISTORICAL AMNESIA – American history is constructed from myths “when the legend becomes fact, print the legend.”

HOYDENISH – having qualities or traits that are traditionally considered inappropriate for a girl or woman – a hoydenish woman, who smoked cigars and wore heavy work boots

HYPOTHESIS CONTRARY TO FACT – Trying to prove something in the real world by using imaginary examples alone, or asserting that, if hypothetically X had occurred, Y would have been the result

IDENTITY – meaning assigned to an individual or particular group

IDENTITY TOURISM – is the process by which people assume an identity in the virtual world that is entirely different than their own. However, I want to challenge this notion, like I have before, of having this very distinct virtual world where the rules of ‘real life’ do no apply and where everything is fantasy

INDIGENISM – can refer to several different ideologies associated with indigenous peoples, is used differently by a various scholars and activists, and can be used purely descriptively or carry political connotations

IDEOLOGY – basis of economic or political theory and policy. A system of concepts about human life and culture, beliefs, or theories shared by a people.

IMPUNITY – exemption from punishment or freedom from the injurious consequences of an action

INNOCUOUS – not likely to irritate, offend or to arouse strong feelings or hostility

IN REM JURISDICTION – (Latin, “power about or against ‘the thing'”) is a legal term describing the power a court may exercise over property (either real or personal) or a “status” against a person over whom the court does not have in personam jurisdiction

INSURGENCY – is a movement within a country dedicated to overthrowing the government

INSURGENT – a rebel or revolutionary/rising in active revolt

INTERDICTION – is a military term for the act of delaying, disrupting, or destroying enemy forces or supplies en route to the battle area

INTERETHNIC – sharing a common and distinctive culture ie; Asian: Japanese & Chinese or Korean or Filipino or combination thereof – African: Nigerian & Ethiopian or Egyptian or So. African or any combination thereof

INTERGENERATIONAL – relating to, involving, or affecting several generation

INDIVIDUAL RACISM – can include face-to-face or covert actions toward a person that intentionally express prejudice, hate or bias based on race

– An intrusion on the right to be left alone, or the right to be free from publicity

IMPLICIT BIAS – suggests that the use the N-word in the context of a criminal act constitutes prima facie (based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise) evidence of a hate crime

IMPLICIT CONSTRUCT – introspectively unidentified (inaccurately identified) trace of past experience that mediates [the category of responses that are assumed to be influenced by that construct].” Implicit cognition, in turn, reveals mental associations that people are unwilling or are unable to report

INDIVIDUAL RACISM – internalized racism

INSIDER INFORMATION – A non-public fact regarding the plans or condition of a publicly traded company that could provide a financial advantage when used to buy or sell shares of the company’s stock

INSTITUTIONAL RACISM – refers to the policies and practices within and across institutions that, intentionally or not, produce outcomes that chronically favor, or put a racial group at a disadvantage. Poignant examples of institutional racism can be found in school disciplinary policies in which students of color are punished at much higher rates that their white counterparts, in the criminal justice system, and within many employment sectors in which day-to-day operations, as well as hiring and firing practices can significantly disadvantage workers of color. Occuring within and between institutions. Discriminatory treatment, unfair policies and inequitable opportunities and impacts, based on race, produced and perpetuated by institutions (schools, mass media, etc.) A pattern of social institutions — such as governmental organizations, schools, banks, and courts of law — giving negative treatment to a group of people based on their race. occurs within and between institutions. Discriminatory treatment, unfair policies and inequitable opportunities and impacts, based on race, produced and perpetuated by institutions (schools, mass media, etc.).

INTEGRAL JOURNALISM THEORY –  entire; complete; whole: activity or profession of writing for newspapers, magazines or broadcasting news on radio, television and a system of ideas intended to explain something, based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained

INTERSECTIONALTY – (these 3 things together) – women/men/gay/transgender/cisgenfer+race+discrimination-“always in combination with one another

INTERSEXUAL – relating to or having the condition of being intermediate between male and female. Variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals which don’t fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. Anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male.

IRRELEVANT CONCLUSION – This fallacy occurs when a rhetorician adapts an argument purporting to establish a particular conclusion and directs it to prove a different conclusion

JINGOISM – extreme nationalism that shapes forceful and aggressive foreign policy

JOINT VENTURE – An association of two or more individuals or entities for the purpose of engaging in a specific business enterprise for profit

JUDICIAL REVIEW – the power of the U.S. Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of laws, judicial decisions, or acts of a government official

KLEPTOCRACY – “power, rule” or “rule by thieves” is a term applied to a government seen as having a particularly severe and systemic problem with officials

LARCENY – when a person unlawfully takes and carries away another person’s personal property without consent and with the intent to permanently deprive the owner

LATINX – (pronounced “La-TEEN-ex”) is a gender-inclusive way of referring to people of Latin American descent

LEGAL REALISM – depicts the institution of law without denying or distorting a picture of sharp moral, political, and social conflict. it challenges the classical legal claim & reasoning was separate and autonomous from moral and political discourse.

LGBTQIAP – Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual and Pansexual

LOGIAL FALLACIES – statements that might sound reasonable or superficially true but are actually flawed or dishonest -the concept of making an error in terms of reasoning rendering an argument invalid

LOGICAL PARADOX also known as a CONTRADICTORY PREMISE – Establishing a premise in such a way that it contradicts another, earlier premise

MACROSTRUCTURE – correspond to the overall organization of society described at a rather large-scale level, featuring for instance social groups, organizations, institutions, nation-states  and their respective properties and relations

MAIN NEWS – featured most prominently always in first section devoted to stories from the local, community, state, national and international

MAINSTREAM MEDIA –  reflective of prevailing currents of thought, influence, or activity. as contrasted with alternative media

MALFEASANCE – wrongdoing, especially by a public official

MARXISM-LENINISM – an ideology supporting the idea of a vanguard party, one-party state, state-dominance over the economy, internationalism, opposition to bourgeois democracy, and opposition to capitalism

MEDIA LITERACY – ability to access, analyze, evaluate and create media

MEDIA MANIPULATION – is a series of related techniques in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests

MERITOCRACY – an elite group of people whose progress is based on ability and talent rather than on class privilege or wealth. A system in which such persons are rewarded and advanced or the holding of power by people selected on the basis of their ability

METHODOLOGY – the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge

MÉTIS – descendants of specific mixed First Nations and European ancestry who self-identify as Métis, The majority of Métis are of mixed Algonquian and French ancestry

MISATTRIBUTION – emotional reaction, positive or negative, and you look for a reason for why you might have this reaction by scanning the environment for salient differences that might account for it

MISFEASANCE – transgression, especially the wrongful exercise of lawful authority

MISOGNY – hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women, or prejudice against women

MOMOGENISM – a single origin of humanity Traditionally, most Jews, Christians and Muslims have embraced monogamism in the form that all modern humans ultimately are descended from a single mating pair, named Adam and Eve

MONEY LAUNDERING – The act of disguising the source or true nature of money obtained through illegal means

MONOLITH – a large and impersonal political, corporate, or social structure regarded as intractably indivisible and uniform

MONOPOLISTIC – a person, business or government who has a monopoly or is an advocate of monopoly

MOTION TO DISMISS – A motion filed by either party in a lawsuit asking the court to throw out part of the case, or the case in its entirety.

MOULAGE – is the art of applying mock injuries for the purpose of training Emergency Response Teams and other medical and military personnel

MULTIFARIOUS – having many different parts, elements, forms

MYOPIC – nearsighted or short sighted – lacking imagination, foresight, or intellectual insight

NATIONALISM – The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance. Also, the belief that a people who share a common language, history, and culture should constitute an independent nation, free of foreign domination

NATIVISM – opposition to the presence of immigrants and immigrant flows into one’s country

NATURAL LAW – a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct. A principle or body of laws considered as derived from nature, right reason, or religion and as ethically binding in human society

NEGOTIABLE TRANSFER – Transferable from one person to another in return for something of equal value. Able to be transferred from one person to another by delivery, with or without signature or endorsement, so that ownership or title passes to the transferee

NEOLIBERALISM – is a policy model of social studies and economics transfering control of economic factors from the public sector to the private sector

NEGOTIATED READING/MEANING – to agree with but also disagree

NEOLOGISM – a new word, term, or phrase that creates new reference words out of older terminology

NIGRUM – Latin word meaning  black

NINTH AMENDMENT – An amendment to the U.S. Constitution that guarantees the rights established in the Constitution cannot be interpreted as denying or jeopardizing other rights of the people.

NON CAUSA PRO CAUSA – A general, catch-all category for mistaking a false cause of an event for the real cause

NONDISPARAGEMENT CLAUSE – restricts individuals from taking any action that negatively impacts an organization, its reputation, products, services, management or employees or prevents victims from sharing the alleged details of a case or the names of police officers involved giving the city leeway to claim there’s no pattern of police misconduct. Similar to a gag-order

NON—RACIST– non-term. Created by whites to deny responsibility for systemic racism, to maintain an aura of innocence in the face of racial oppression, and to shift responsibility oppression from whites to people of color (Victim Blaming) Responsibility for perpetuating and legitimizing a racist system rests both on those who actively maintain it, and on those who refuse to challenge it. Silence is consent

NEURAL INTEGRATION – (medical term) differentiation of distinct streams of awareness and the cultivation of well-being – how the nervous system communicates with the body and the brain

NIHILISM – total rejection of established laws and institutions.

OBFUSCATE – bewilder, render obscure, unclear, or unintelligible

OBSCURANTISM – is when facts are deliberately or full details withheld from the public

OCCAM’s RAZOR – other things being equal, simpler explanations are generally better than more complex ones trying to understand something, getting unnecessary information out of the way is the fastest way to the truth or to the best explanation

OFFICAL SOURCE – Government, business firm, and/or powerful institution officials that are relied heavily on by the mainstream media for information. These sources are deemed “official” because of their supposed prestige and rank within their respective fields

OLIGOPLY–  is the middle ground between monopoly and capitalism. Any market structure characterized by a downward sloping demand curve has market power.

OLIGARCHIAL KLEPTOCRACY – When stealing from the public treasury becomes civic virtue

OLIGARCHY – a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution

OLIGARCHY RIGGING – is CONTROLLED OPPOSITION aka MANIPULATING people’s emotions to make them think they have a meaningful choice between 2 prescribed choices

OPERATION – The process of working something out in your head

OPERATION MOCKINGBIRD – CIA recruited US journalists to gather intelligence and provide direct access to the most prestigious media outlets in the country encompassing newspapers, periodicals, press services, news agencies, radio and television stations, book publishers and foreign media outlets to influence public opinion

OPPRESSION – exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner. mix of power and prejudice often defined through privilege as its “losing end. Prejudice and discrimination directed toward whole socially recognized groups of people and promoted by the ideologies and practices of all social institutions

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE – An order issued by the court that a party appear in court on a specified date and time to give reasons (show cause) why an order requested by the opposing party should not be made others works that a person claims are genuine fabricating. The act of devising, fabricating, or counterfeiting a document or other object.

PAN-INDIANISM – is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different American Indian groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations. The movement is largely associated with Native Americans in the Continental United States, but has spread to other indigenous groups as well

PANOPTICON – a circular prison with cells arranged around a central well, from which prisoners could at all times be observed

PARADIGMATIC – fancy word for describing something that is an ideal or standard.

PARALLELISM – the state of being parallel or of corresponding in some way

PASSIVE AGGRESSIVE – denoting a type of behavior or personality characterized by indirect resistance to the demands of others and an avoidance of direct confrontation, as in procrastinating, pouting, or misplacing important materials

PATHOLOGIZED – regard or treat (someone or something) as psychologically abnormal or unhealthy

PATRIARCHY – male dominance over women and extension to society in general

PECUNIARY – relating to, or consisting of money exacted as monetary payment

PENULTIMATE – 2nd to last

PERSONAM – is a Latin phrase meaning “directed toward a particular person”

PILLORY – consisted of hinged wooden boards forming holes through which the head and/or various limbs were inserted; then the boards were locked together to secure the captive

PLAGIARISM – the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own.

PLURALISM – people of all ethnicities and races remain distinct but have social equality. US is exceptionally diverse, with people representing groups from all over the globe, but lacking in true pluralism

PLUTOCRACY – a government controlled by the wealthy

POLITICALLY CORRECT – commonly abbreviated to PC…A term, in modern usage used to describe language, policies, or measures intended not to offend or disadvantage any particular group of people in society

POLYGENY – the theory (not now generally held) humans evolved from several independent pairs of ancestors – pygmies state the supreme God of the pygmies, Khonvoum, created three different races of man separately out of three kinds of clay: one black, one white, and one red

POST HOC RATIONALIZATION – results in misattribution when the reason you take to account for your emotional reaction does not correspond to what in fact caused it

POWER – authority – possession of control or command over others

PREJUDICE – preconceived opinion not based on reason or actual experience. benefit enjoyed only by a person beyond the advantages of most

PRIMA FACIE – based on the first impression; accepted as correct until proved otherwise

PRIVATIZATION – is the transfer of ownership of property or businesses from a government to a privately owned entity. The transition from a publicly traded and owned company to a company which is privately owned and no longer trades publicly on a stock exchange

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISASSOCIATION – describes a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience

PUBLIC VOICE / PUBLIC INTEREST – Terms to express the opinions, wants, and needs of ordinary citizens of the middle class or impoverished portions of society. The public is the audience of the mass media and often times have little to no say in political and corporate actions. The public is mutually exclusive from the elite or ruling classes

PUNITIVE – inflicting or intended as punishment

Q.E.D. – is an abbreviation of the Latin words “Quod Erat Demonstrandum” which loosely translated means “that which was to be demonstrated”. It is usually placed at the end of a mathematical proof to indicate the proof is complete

QUALIFIED IMMUNITY – balances two important interests—the need to hold public officials accountable when they exercise power irresponsibly and the need to shield officials from harassment, distraction, and liability when they perform their duties reasonably.”

RACE – group of people sharing similar and distinct physical characteristics, differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant

RACE BAITING –  the unfair use of statements about race to try to influence the actions or attitudes of a particular group of people or attempting to cloud logic and facts by appealing to emotion through false accusations of racial discrimination. It is the term being used by, what is considered to be right-wing media outlets – for anyone that brings up Race

RACIAL DIFFERENCE –  characteristic of any such group. relating to or arising from differences between the races

RACIAL DISPARITY – lack of equality – justice, health care, employment for a group of people sharing similar and distinct physical characteristics, differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant

RACIAL DYNAMICS – relating to, or characteristic of one race or the races of humankind

RACIAL FORMATION – The socio-historical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed, and destroyed

RACIAL JUSTICE – proactive reinforcement of policies, practices, attitudes and actions that produce equitable power, access, opportunities, treatment, impacts and outcomes for all

RACIAL PROJECT – making the link between what race means in a particular aimlessly practice and the ways in which both the social structures and everyday experiences are racially organized, based upon meaning. A Racial Project is simultaneously an interpretation, representation or explanation of racial dynamics, and an effort to reorganize and redistribute resources along particular racial line

RACIALIZATION – The extension of racial meaning to a previously unclassified relationship, social practice or group

RACIAL REALISM – is a legal and social mechanism on which blacks can rely to have their voice and outrage heard

RACISM – prejudice based on socially significant physical features. A racist believes that certain people are superior, or inferior

RACIST – a person who believes that a particular race is superior to another

RATIFIED – sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid.

RECIDIVISM – going back to a previous criminal behavior – habitual relapse into crime

RED DIAPER BABY – a child of parents who were members of the United States Communist Party (CPUSA) or were close to the party or sympathetic to its aims

REFUGEE – A person who has fled his home country to another, for refuge or safety, usually in time of war or political upheaval

REINSCRIBE – to reestablish or rename in a new and especially stronger form or context—usage, synonyms, more

REPRESENTATION – describe, depict, symbolize, to stand for. An attempt to assign/create meaning; connecting meaning and language to culture


REVERSE RACISM – A term created and used by white people to deny their white privilege. They use reverse racism to refer to hostile behavior by people of color toward whites, and to affirmative action policies, which allegedly give ‘preferential treatment’ to people of color over whites

REVICTIMIZATION – a survivor who has removed his/herself from an abusive environment is harmed again by perpetrators which include  psychological abuse that may occur in a survivor’s interactions with authorities such as the courts, law enforcement personnel, or therapists

RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN – desires of individuals to “determine the development of their life in an autonomous way, without being perpetually or periodically stigmatized as a consequence of a specific action performed in the past

ROBBERY – someone stealing by demanding you hand it over in a threatening way or by violently snatching it away from you

SACROSANCT – regarded as too important or valuable to be interfered with

SCHEMA (scheme) – The representation in the mind of a set of perceptions, ideas, and/or actions, which go together

SCHISM – a split or division between strongly opposed sections or parties, caused by differences in opinion or belief

SEGREGATION – enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment

SEMANTICS – the study of meaning. To achieve a desired effect on an audience especially through the use of words with novel or dual meanings. Semantics analyze their subtle shades of meaning

SEMIOTICS or SIGNS – the study of objects, images, words and their meanings

SEX – male-female-based on physical, biological physiological characteristics

SEXISM – related to power behaviors based on sex; negative discrimination against people based on their assumed sexual identity

SIGN – word, image or object

SIGNATORY – a party that has signed an agreement, especially a country that has signed a treaty

SIGNIFIED – denoted/literal by a sign

SIGNIFIER – word, image or object

SISYPHUS – King of Ephyra (now known as Corinth). He was punished for his self-aggrandizing craftiness and deceitfulness by being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill, only to watch it roll back down, repeating this action for eternity

SLIPPERY SLOPE FALLACY – speaker argues that, once the first step is undertaken, a second or third step will inevitably follow, much like the way one step on a slippery incline will cause a person to fall and slide all the way to the bottom

SMOKE and MIRRORS – intended to make you believe that something is being done or is true, when it is not the obscuring or embellishing of the truth of a situation with misleading or irrelevant information.

SOCIAL AMNESIA – is a collective forgetting by a group of people and can be a result of “forcible repression” of memories, ignorance, changing circumstances, or the forgetting that comes from changing interests

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF REALITY – persons and groups interacting create concepts or mental representations of each other’s actions

SOCIOECONOMIC STRUCTURE – An individual’s or group’s position within a hierarchical social structure. Socioeconomic status depends on a combination of variables, including occupation, education, income, wealth, and place of residence

SOCIAL LOCATION – Who am I? Who are my people?

SOCIOHISTORICAL – relating to, or involving social history or a combination of social and historical factors

SOLIPSISM – the view or theory that the self is all that can be known to exist

SPECIAL RAPPORTEUR – is a title given to individuals working on behalf of various regional and international organizations who bear specific mandates to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to specific human rights problems. There currently exist: Special Rapporteurs of the United Nations.

STATISM – a political system in which the state has substantial centralized control over social and economic affairs

STEREOTYPES – fixed and oversimplified image or idea

STRATIFICATION – is a system or formation of layers, classes, or categories

STRUCTURAL RACISM – A system in which public policies, institutional practices, cultural representations, and other norms work in various, often reinforcing ways to perpetuate racial group inequity. It identifies dimensions of our history and culture that have allowed privileges associated with “whiteness” and disadvantages associated with “color” to endure and adapt over time. Structural racism is not something that a few people or institutions choose to practice. Instead it has been a feature of the social, economic and political systems in which we all exist. Racial Equity: Racial equity refers to what a genuinely non-racist society would look like. In a racially equitable society, the distribution of society’s benefits and burdens would not be skewed by race. In other words, racial equity would be a reality in which a person is no more or less likely to experience society’s benefits or burdens just because of the color of their skin. This is in contrast to the current state of affairs in which a person of color is more likely to live in poverty, be imprisoned, drop out of high school, be unemployed and experience poor health outcomes like diabetes, heart disease, depression and other potentially fatal diseases. Racial equity holds society to a higher standard. It demands that we pay attention not just to individual-level discrimination, but to overall social outcomes. Systemic Racism: In many ways “systemic racism” and “structural racism” are synonymous. If there is a difference between the terms, it can be said to exist in the fact that a structural racism analysis pays more attention to the historical, cultural and social psychological aspects of our currently racialized society

STRAWMAN ARGUMENT – any lame attempt to “prove” an argument by overstating, exaggerating, or over-simplifying the arguments of the opposing side

STRATEGIC LAWSUIT AGAINST PUBLIC PARTICIPATION (SLAPP) – lawsuit intended to censor, intimidate, and silence critics by burdening them with the cost of a legal defense until they abandon their criticism or opposition

STREISAND EFFECT – Has opposite effect: is the phenomenon whereby an attempt to hide, remove, or censor a piece of information has the unintended consequences of publicizing the information more widely, usually facilitated by the Internet . In cease and desist letters to suppress numbers, files, and websites. Instead of being suppressed, the information receives extensive publicity and media extensions such as videos and spoof songs, often being widely mirrored across the Internet or distributed on file sharing networks

STRUCTURAL RACISM – normalization and legitimization of historical, cultural, institutional and interpersonal – routinely advantages Whites producing cumulative and chronic adverse outcomes for people of color

SUBJUGATION – bringing under control ~ enslavement

SUNDOWN TOWNS – The term came from signs that were posted stating that ‘people of color’ had to leave the town by sundown. They are also sometimes known as sunset towns or gray towns. Example: one posted in Hawthorne, CA which read “Nigger, Don’t Let The Sun Set On YOU In Hawthorne”

SYMBIOSIS – a mutually beneficial relationship between different people or groups

SYMBOLIC ANNIHILATION – describes the way people’s achievements are not reported, condemned or trivialized by the mass media

SYLLOGY – an instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn (whether validly or not) from two given or assumed propositions (premises), each of which shares a term with the conclusion, and shares a common or middle term not present in the conclusion

SYMBIOSIS – a mutually beneficial relationship between different people or groups

SYSTEMIC RACIAL PROFILING  – A system of profiling. Subjugation of Black people or other non-Whites

SYSTEM(S) of POWER i.e. RACE, GENDER, CLASS, SEXUALITY – unearned benefits, rights, and access

THIN BLUE LINE – The blue wall of silence, also blue code and blue shield, are terms denoting the unwritten rule existing among police officers not to report on a colleague’s errors, misconducts, or crimes, including police brutality and orchestrate lying and various means used to maintain control.

THOMAS PAINE AWARD –  established in 1990 to honor journalists like Paine who endeavor to articulate popular causes in defense of ordinary and disenfranchised (deprived of power of a legal right or privilege – marginalized) members of society

TORT – A wrongful or unlawful act or infringement of rights which lead to civil legal liability. A civil wrong that occurs when a person causes harm to another with knowledge that harm or injury can occur

TROPES – a figurative or metaphorical use of a word or expression

TU QUOQUE – a retort made by a person accused of a crime implyingthat the accuser is also guilty of the same crime

TYRANNYa nation under cruel and oppressive government. Government rule of a tyrant or absolute ruler. Arbitrary or unrestrained excercize of power; despotic abuse of authority

UBIQUITOUS ASSIMILATION – always absorbing everything everywhere all the time

UNDISTRIBUTED MIDDLE TERM – A specific type of error in deductive reasoning in which the minor premise and the major premise of a syllogis might or might not overlap Voltaire “Whites … Negroes … the yellow races are not descended from the same man”

UNEXPURGATED – complete and containing all the original material; uncensored text

VIGNETTE – is a short impressionistic scene that focuses on one moment or gives a trenchant impression about a character, idea, setting, or object.

VEXATIOUS LITIGATION – is legal action which is brought, regardless of its merits, solely to harass or subdue an adversary

VITRIOL – cruel and bitter criticism

VITRIOLIC – filled with bitter criticism or malice

WATERSHED – An event or period marking a turning point in a course of action or state of affairs

WHITE FRAGILITY – is a state in which even a minimum amount of racial stress be- comes intolerable, triggering a range of defensive moves. These moves include the outward display of emotions such as anger, fear, and guilt, and behaviors such as argumentation, silence, and leaving the stress-inducing situation

WHITE PRIVILEGE – is a right, favor, advantage, immunity, specially granted to one individual or group, and withheld from another. White privilege refers to any advantage, opportunity, benefit, head start, or general protection from negative societal mistreatment, which persons deemed White will typically enjoy, but which others will generally not enjoy

WHITESPLAINING – Racism being Whitesplained to a person of color why shouldn’t be considered racist

WHITE SUPREMACY – institutionally perpetuated system of exploitation and oppression of continents, nations and peoples of color by white peoples and nations of the European continent; for the purpose of maintaining and defending a system of wealth, power and privilege.

XENOPHOBIA – fear and hatred of foreigners and strangers

YELLOW JOURNALISM – based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration. Catchy headlines in mainstream media to get attention